In laravel you can insert data to a table in two ways, the first one and the most common is using a model, create a model for that table and then insert the data, the second way is using DB::table(), in this article i will show you how to insert to database table using DB::table().
The 'php artisan migrate' command lets you run the database migration on your application, but there is more than that, there are other variant of this command that you can use such as rollback, reset, refresh, status, install and so on.
On your laravel database migration you can define indexes for each table that you create, for example you can add primary key, unique value, or just a basic index. All can be done in laravel schema builder.
These are list of schema table column types that you can use when creating database migration on laravel 4.2, most of these column types also available on laravel 5, this post is just for quick reference.